Pustral UGM

The Center for Transportation and Logistics Studies, Universitas Gadjah Mada

The provision of public access to development process (social, economic and political) and self-development opportunities is the state’s obligation to its citizens. Access to transport infrastructure is a key to increased mobility and community participation. Nowadays, however, public transport services, infrastructure and fares, have not been optimal. 

Nowadays, people who are awarded with good health, both physically and mentally, find some difficulties in accessing public transport infrastructure. Most of them prefer to use private vehicles. Those with disabilities, who are also have the right of transportation, certainly they have  more difficulties in accessing transport infrastructure. Hence, the state has the obligation to provide good transportation infrastructure that can serve all of the citizens.

As known, in Indonesia, there are 2.8 million people with disabilities in 2013 amounted (source: Ministry of Social Affairs in Antara News). Meanwhile, in Yogyakarta it self, there are 29.220 people in 2011 (source: Social Agency of Yogyakarta Province). People with disabilities are also has the right for transportation, the right to be free to go wherever and whenever. 

Inadequate public transportation infrastructure and has forced disabled people to mobile themselves using modified motorized vehicles. Most them, however, do not have a driving license as a requirement to drive a motor vehicle on the highway. According to Prof. Dr. Danang Parikesit, having a driving license is the”first entry” to an individual right to drive a vehicle. This phenomenon occurs because the design of the existing public transport does not allow the implementation of services and rates that can serve all citizens in the country or referred as “universal access”. 

In 2014, there are + -700 people with disabilities who propose to have a driving license in Yogyakarta province (source: Disabled Motorcyclist Community). By having the license, they will have the opportunity to make a big difference in their life, including; Independence in social life, opportunities to find a job and work, as well as the freedom to go wherever and whenever. 

In response to the related issue, on 29 September 2014 at the Lower Main Room, office of Yogyakarta City Major, Center for Transportation and Logistics Studies (Pustral-UGM) with Disabled Motorcyclist Community (DMC) and United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) – Weels for Indonesian Humanity held a seminar entitled “Meeting Transportation Access for Diverse Needs”. 

The seminar presented Prof. Dr. Danang Parikesit (Pustral-UGM), dr. Guritno Sp. KFR. (Academic Hospital of UGM), AKBP Tulus Ikhlas Pamoji (Director of Yogyakarta Province Traffic Police) and Dr. Gede Pasek Suardika (Director of Land Transport Safety, Ministry of Transportation of Republic of Indonesia) as the speakers. Participants who attended the seminar came from various backgrounds; academics, relevant office holders, police, and disabled people. 

As a final note of the activity: Government (Ministry of Transportation, Ministry of Industry and Police) must come up with operational regulations related to the fulfillment of transportation access for special needs. The regulation should concern about vehicle design, infrastructure design, and related regulations for driving lisence acquisition for those with special needs. (Listi/Muadz)

Pustral-UGM has been cooperating with Ajou University and KOTSA (Korea Transportation Safety Authority) for a few years, especially in human resource capacity building. As part of the continued cooperation, Ajou University and KOTSA visited Pustral-UGM and Yogyakarta State University for 3 days. The visit took place on 22-24 September 2014, aimed to strengthen the cooperation between KOTSA, Ajou University, Pustral-UGM and UNY.

On the first day of the visit, Prof. Yong Tae Oh and Prof. Choul-Ki Lee from Ajou University and Mr. Yeon Seong Kim of KOTSA gave lectures on Transportion safety and vehicle inspection in Korea in a stadium generale conducted in the Main Courtroom of YSU main building. This programme was attended by governmental agencies as well as academics.

On the second day, they visited Pustral-UGM to be speakers on the monthly seminar held by Pustral-UGM. There were three topics discussed in the seminar; 1. Transportation Safety Policy in Korea presented by Prof. Yong Tae Oh from Ajou University, 2 Vehicle Inspection History in Korea presented by Mr. Kim Yeon Seong from KOTSA, and 3. Modern Intelligent Transport System delivered by Prof. Choul-ki Lee jrom Ajou University. The seminar was attended by relevant office holders, such as representatives of the Transportation Agency of Yogyakarta Province, Transportation Agency of City and Regencies in Yogyakarta, Regional Planning Agency of Yogyakarta Province, City and Regencies, Police, as well as researchers from Pustral-GMU.

On the last day, KOTSA visited Yogyakarta Vehicle Inspection Center. The visit aims to know the process of vehicle inspections, especially in Yogyakarta, as well as to revealed the progress made after they joined in a training programme in KOTSA. (Listi/Muadz)

As a follow-up of the undertaken initiatives in 2012 to develop an efficient, responsive and sustainable urban logistics system is Indonesia, Coordinating Ministry for Economic Affairs and the Center for Transportation and Logistics Studies, Universitas Gadjah Mada (PUSTRAL UGM) in collaboration with The Logistics Institute Asia Pacific, National University of Singapore organize a workshop on spatial decision model development and support system. The developed model and system can be used by policy makers in cities that are facing challenges on transportation and freight system.
The activity is carried out in two cities, Jakarta and Yogyakarta. In Jakarta, the workshop took place on September 23, 2014. Prof. Senator Nur Bahagia, Dr. Robert de Souza, Dr. Kuncoro Harto Widodo, Mr. Johari Zein, and Dr. Lindawati performed as the speakers. The opening keynote was given by the Deputy Minister for Economic Affairs, Commerce and Enterprise Affairs Coordination – Mr. Edy Putra Irawady. This event is also coupled with a panel discussion presenting the Vice Governor of Jakarta- Mr. Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, Mayor of Bandung City Mr. Ridwan Kamil, and Prof. Danang Parikeshit from UGM. The President of the Association of Indonesian Logistics. Mr. Zaldy Ilham Masita was the moderator.
In Yogyakarta, the workshop took place on 25 to 26 September 2014. The speakers were Prof. Mark Goh, Dr. Robert de Souza, Dr. Kuncoro Harto Widodo, and Hendra Gunawan Edi, M.Sc. (Listi/Muadz)

One of key strategies on land transport development is meet diverse needs. It means that transportation service shall be accessible by all people in any condition. In fact, it is frequently found that diffables find difficult to get access to public transportation and so that they prefer to move using their own modified vehicles. In Yogyakarta, according to chairman of DMC (Difable Motorcyclist Community) Yogyakarta, Waluyo, there are more than 600 diffables riding on the road. Although they do not have driving license, they ride motorcycle to move as the available public transport could not properly meet their specific needs. In one hand, for most diffables, having a driver license will make a great difference. They could be an independent person as they could go anywhere by themselves. Besides, they could also look for job and make money.

On the other hand, it is true that every citizen has the same level of rights to use road. Nevertheless, there are two prerequisites for a citizen to ride/drive on the road, i.e. (1) the possession of driver license for type of vehicle he/she rides on (Article 77 of Law Number 22/2009); and (2) that the vehicle (including its modification) has passed the vehicle type test. Driver license imply compliance to all legal aspects and appropriateness to operate vehicle. Meanwhile, the vehicle should pass the vehicle test which includes technical and roadworthy aspects. 

As an initial step to establish transportation system which could meet diverse needs, PUSTRAL-UGM in collaboration with DMC Yogyakarta and UCP (United Cerebral Palsy) Indonesia had organized a series of activities specially designed for diffables. The main objective was to provide access as wide as possible for diffables to their legal rights on the road (driver license and vehicle modification). 

The activity started with medical check-up on August 22, 2014. The medical team came from Rumah Sakit Akademik UGM and consisted of 5 doctors, 1 neurologist, 1 medical rehabilitation specialist, and 4 nurses. There were 180 participants in total taking part in this medical check-up. On the next day, August 23, 2014, participants joined a public lecture on road safety, riding/driving ethics, material for driving license test both theory and practical. Meanwhile, the speakers came from PUSTRAL-UGM, Directorate of Traffic of Yogyakarta Police Department, Sleman Police Department, and Gunung Kidul Police Department. (Supanggung/Muadz

Act No. 18 Year 2012 on Food emphasizes the duty of the state to realize the availability, affordability, and fulfilment of adequate, safe, quality, and nutritionally balanced food consumption, both at national and regional as well as individual levels, and evenly sustainable across the country. Every citizen has the right for fair, equitable, and sustainable food fulfilment based on Food Sovereignty, Food Independence, and Food Security. The clause indicates that compliance with food is part of Indonesian citizens’ rights which is guaranteed in the 1945 Constitution.

In line with this, Presidential Regulation No. 26 Year 2012 on the National Logistics System (Sislognas) as an effort to boost the nation’s competitiveness on produced food-related goods or commodities and to ensure the right to food evenly has also endorsed.

There are three main things that need to be focused on food management, namely: (1) food availability based on optimal utilization of local resources; (2) food affordability from physical and economical aspects of the entire population; and (3) food and nutrition use or consumption for healthy, active, and productive living. In terms of physical affordability, condition of infrastructure/facility becomes an important key support aspect for the success of food management.  

However, the condition of facilities and infrastructure in Indonesia is still characterized by low accessibility, quality, or scope of services. Inequality of infrastructure conditions between western and eastern Indonesian region also becomes a significant obstacle to the implementation of food management. The existing facilities and infrastructure have not been fully able to be the backbone to support government’s measures to achieve food sovereignty.

In response, PUSTRAL-UGM held a SYNERGIA 2014 discussion with the theme of “Logistics System for competitiveness and food sovereignty”. This activity aimed to: (1) obtain an overview on challenges and strategies of policy implementation in order to realize national food sovereignty; (2) to discuss constraints and challenges of infrastructure development and logistics transportation services to support the realization of competitive national logistics system that is capable of supporting the creation of national food sovereignty; and (3) finding a solution to overcome various obstacles encountered.

The discussion activity in SYNERGIA 2014 involved policy makers from related Ministries /Institutions, associations, industry, practitioners, and academics. There were 200 participants involved in the discussion. The speakers at this event are: Dr. Kuncoro Harto Widodo (Director of PUSTRAL-UGM), Prof. Dr. Robert de Souza (Executive Director for The Logistics Institute – Asia Pacific, NUS), Ir. Saut Parulian Hutagalung, M.Sc. (Deputy Minister of Marine and Fisheries), Dr. Beni Rachman (Head of Food Sovereignty), Zaldi Masita (President of ALI – Indonesian Logistics Association), Poltak Ambarita (PDN Director General, Ministry of Commerce) and Dr. M. Pramono Hadi (PUSTRAL-UGM) as the moderator. The event was opened by the Rector of Universitas Gadjah Mada, Prof. Pratikno, while the keynote speech was delivered by Mr. Edi Putra Irawady (Deputy for coordination of commercial and entrepreneurial, CMEA). (Sulistiono)

Logistics is interpreted not merely as an item, but a series of activities process of procurement, storage and distribution of goods and equipment through an effective organization networks. This process requires system clarity and good infrastructure support. In the context of disaster, logistics and supply chain management is one of the most important aspects and factors for successful disaster management and handling. In contrast to commercial logistics, humanitarian logistics aims to help victims of disasters such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods and tsunami to maximize humanity values. Humanitarian logistics must be able to ensure that materials and equipments are acceptable to the victims not only in good condition but can be distributed on time at the right targets. Humanitarian logistics also need to guarantee smooth running of information so that all parties can communicate easily and support the planning and implementation of policies related to procurement, storage and distribution of goods and equipments.

PUSTRAL-UGM in cooperation with Kuehne Foundation-NUS Education Center for Humanitarian Logistics Asia Pacific, Singapore, and the Singapore Institute for Materials Management (SIMM) organized a certificated training entitled Certificate in Humanitarian Logistics Management at the University Club of UGM on 25-28 March 2014. This training was addressed to government agencies that deal with disasters (BPBDs), humanitarian and academic institutions in disaster areas. The event was also attended by Deputy II of Presidential Work Unit for Development Monitoring and Control (UKP4) Mr. Arie Mohammad Hanief Setianto.

The training activity was attended by 40 participants from Government (BPBDs), NGOs, humanitarian agencies, academics and research centers. The trainers were Dr. Robert de Souza, Dr. Lindawati (The Logistics Institute Asia Pacific Singapore NUS), Dr. Jasni Hambali (SIMM), Temmy Tanubrata (Director of PT. Khalifa Jaya Utama), and Iwan Agriawan (Senior Researcher PUSTRAL-UGM)

National Logistics System (Sislognas) issued by the government as a Presidential Decree (Decree) No. 26 The year 2012 is one of the instruments developed by the government in supporting the improvement of Indonesia competitiveness in ASEAN free trade in 2015 and public welfare. The National Logistics System blueprint classifies Batubara Regency as a special economic zone area. This classification is given since Batubara Regency has a Port which is planned to be an International Hub Port, the Port of Kuala Tanjung.

Responding to this issue, the Commission C of Batubara Regency’s Regional House of Representative which is responsible for people welfare, one of which covers the areas of education, plans to increase the quality of human resources of Batubara Regency through education, particularly in the area of logistics. It is intended to prepare local human resources to implement the National Logistics System (Sislognas) plan. Visit to PUSTRAL-UGM aimed to discuss the possibility of introducing logistics into the curriculum of vocational school. Deputy Chiefs of PUSTRAL UGM, Mr. Arif Wismadi and Mr. Pramono Hadi hosted the visit.

In line with the increase of population and changes in consumption patterns and life-style of Indonesian people, there is an increasing need of beef. Currently, the need of beef in Indonesia has been fulfilled through various ways, such as from local farm as well as imports of life cattle and beef.

Currently, Indonesian beef consumption reaches 1.7 kg per capita per year or equal to 1.75 to 2.0 million of life cattle (Directorate General of Husbandry, 2008) and Indonesia can only meet approximately 70% of the need, the rest (30%) is obtained from imports. Referring to the livestock statistics (2010), it is known that the export of beef reached 735 tonnes, while the import reached 77,412 tonnes. It means that Indonesia is still facing a demand gap of beef. Under these conditions, it is critical to fill that demand gap by increasing the supply of domestic beef. Areas which have the potential to be beef supplier and have a surplus tendency can be encouraged to fill the gap, particularly for Java area.

Guaranteeing beef supply is a challenge for beef supply chain management. With the limited capabilities of Java to produce cattle to meet the needs of consumers in Java, it is necessary to find other areas in Indonesia as a potential source of local cattle producers to fill the demand gap. Bali, NTT and NTB are the potential provinces to be prospective cattle producers compared to other provinces in Indonesia. Based on the ratio of cow number in comparison to the population, Bali, NTT, and NTB provinces currently have the highest ratio of availability.

This study aims to identify some of the following key points:

a. locations of production centres of beef cattle in NTB and NTT provinces;

b. marketing channels and distribution systems from farmers to interisland traders and marketing channels in consumption areas  (especially Jakarta and its surroundings);

c.   the most efficient logistics cost from production areas to consumption areas;

d. the most efficient model or systems of beef distribution from producer areas to consumer areas (Jakarta and its surroundings); and

e.   kinds of logistics infrastructure needed to be developed to support effective and efficient beef supply chain.

Currently PUSTRAL UGM works in a team led by PT. Asana Wirasta Setia (private consultant base in Jakarta) in preparation of new airport development in South Banten, Banten Province. This new airport is located at Pandeglang Regency, south Banten. According to Ministry Decree No 433/2010, the airport plans to handle 12 million passenger for next 20 years with runway able to handle the wide body aircraft’s. The team works to prepare the strategic first stage development because the transportation ministry expected the development of this airport will be by private money, very different from usual project that use public money in airport development. At first stage, this airport also mainly for tourism to attract visitors to come to the famous Ujung Kulon and Tanjung Lesung resort area.

At 2012 PUSTRAL UGM involved in the feasibility study and master plan formulation for new airport in Yogyakarta, in cooperation with Landrum and Brown Australia with client GVK Airport, India. Adisutjipto Airport, the existing airport of Yogyakarta has been over capacity for years and not able to maintain good service for the fast growing air traffic in this region. Surrounded by houses, short runway, there are no more space for development in this airport. Also there are raising questions about the safety aspect of this airport with the presence of natural obstacles (mountain) and no space buffer at both runway ends. Another constraint is the fact that this airport is belong to air force that serve as base and flying school. All of those constraint leave this airport with very limited capacity.

After selection process, it was recommended that location of new airport will be at Kulon Progo Regency, about 35 km west of Yogyakarta City. The new airport is expected be able to handle big capacity (could reach 24 million passenger per year at 30 years time) both at land side capacity or air side capacity. The new airport is expected also within one hour travel (or less) from nearest city, by provision of good road and railway access. The airport is designed to handle large domestic traffic using B737/A320 family aircraft’s, while also able to handle the large aircraft to directly flying to Dubai or Jeddah (for Haj purpose). An airport city complex will also be provided. This airport will be developed using PPP scheme, may the first one in the sector. Indonesia does not have many experiences in using PPP scheme for infrastructure except for toll road and water.

PUSTRAL UGM also involved is the other option for air transportation access to this region by possibility to combine the Adisutjipto Airport of Yogyakarta with Adi Soemarmo Airport of Solo, about 60 km to east. The Adi Soemarmo Airport also managed by military. The train is used to connect these two airports. Unfortunately, combining of both airports still not able to handle the projected air traffic in this region.